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经济学人下载:巴托比职场专栏--评级制度对工人的影响(2)

Source: Economist    2020-02-13  我要投稿   论坛   Favorite  

Manufacturing workers have long faced these kind of numerical targets, as well as the need to clock in and out of work. The big change is that similar metrics and rating systems are spreading to more and more parts of the economy. Academics get rated by students; nurses may be judged on a “behaviourally anchored rating scale” which assesses how much empathy they showed to patients.
长期以来,制造业工人一直面临着这样的数字目标,以及打卡上下班的需要。最大的变化是,类似的指标和评级体系正蔓延到越来越多的经济领域。88w.com_【官方首页】-澳门星际学者由学生评分;护士可以通过“行为锚定法”来判断,该法评估护士对病人表现出的同理心程度。

Ratings are at the heart of the gig economy, where workers are connected with employers and customers via the internet. Just as TripAdvisor ratings allow holidaymakers to assess hotels, Uber drivers get a score out of five. The same goes for ratings on services like TaskRabbit (for odd jobs) and Etsy (for arts-and-crafts sellers).
评级是零工经济的核心,在零工经济中,员工通过互联网与雇主和客户联系在一起。就像猫途鹰的评级允许度假者对酒店进行评估一样,优步司机的评分是5分。跑腿兔(提供临时工作)和易集(在线销售手工艺品)等服务的评级也是如此。

Such systems are understandable in parts of the economy where output is difficult to measure precisely. But they can be arbitrary. People might give an Uber driver a poor rating because they are in a bad mood or because they encountered unexpected traffic disruption (the drivers themselves also rate customers, which is meant to discourage abuse).
在经济产出难以精确衡量的领域,这样的体系是可以理解的。但形式并非单一不变。人们可能会因为优步司机心情不好或遇到意外的交通中断而给他差评(司机们自己也会给顾客打分,这是为了防止滥用)。

The result can be increased insecurity for gig-economy workers. Their income is uncertain when they are at the mercy of the assessment system. Even a tiny fall in their rating—of, say, 0.6—can harm their job prospects. A detailed study* of 65 gig-economy workers found that they relished their independence but it came with a host of personal, social and economic anxieties.
88w.com_【官方首页】-澳门星际结果可能会增加临时雇员的不安全感。当收入受评估系统支配时,收入是不确定的。即使评分稍微下降一点,比如说0.6分,也会影响就业前景。一项针对65名临时雇员的详细研究发现,他们很享受自己的独立性,但同时也伴随着大量的个人、社会和经济焦虑。

Even full-time workers may find themselves dependent on their score in one category or another. Businesses want to avoid accusations of hiring biases on grounds of gender or ethnicity; using “objective” rating systems can protect them from discrimination lawsuits. And employees need to be concerned about how they are rated.
即使是全职员工也可能会发现,他们在某个方面的得分取决于自己。88w.com_【官方首页】-澳门星际企业希望避免被指责在招聘时存在性别或种族偏见;而使用“客观”评级系统可以保护他们免受歧视诉讼。而且员工需要对他们如何被评价而感到担忧。

Gianpiero Petriglieri of the insead business school says that, since firms no longer offer jobs for life, everyone is an independent worker whether they like it or not. The key passage in your cv may not be the universities you attended, but your rating in categories like teamwork, innovation and adaptability.
88w.com_【官方首页】-澳门星际欧洲工商管理学院的詹比耶洛·彼崔格里利说,既然公司不再提供终身工作,不管喜欢与否,每个人都是独立的工人。88w.com_【官方首页】-澳门星际你简历中的关键部分可能不是你的学历,而是你在团队合作、创新和适应能力等方面的评分。

Heaven forbid, the system even extends to journalists. Some publications reward writers based on the number of clicks their articles attract. Find out more in next week’s Bartleby column: “How the Kim Kardashian diet can boost your IQ and job prospects”.
88w.com_【官方首页】-澳门星际这一制度甚至延伸到了记者身上(但愿不会如此)。有些出版物根据文章吸引的点击量来奖励作者。你可以在下周的巴托比专栏找到更多:《金·卡戴珊的饮食如何提高你的智商和就业前景》。


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